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Chapter 3: C-A-B CPR Method

With the Compressions – Airway – Breathing (C-A-B) method a sudden cardiac arrest patient receives compressions fast, providing better way for quicker blood flow to their vital organs.

The sequence of C-A-B method for conducting CPR is given later on this chapter to start chest compressions and save the patient as soon as possible from a brain death situation.

Hands-Only CPR Video by American CPR Care Association:

Steps of CPR C-A-B Method:

  1. “C” for Compressions
    • Rate at which you start chest compressions: Give at least 100-120 chest compressions
      per minute
      in cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths (30:2).
    • Depth of chest compressions: detailed in following chapters for adult, child and infant.
    • Chest recoil is vital after each chest compression.
  2.  “A” for Airway
    • Open the airway as you tilt the head and lift the chin for the patient. 
  3. “B” for Breathing
    • 2 rescue breaths

2020 Interim Guidance for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients:

In these times when everyone around is getting exposed to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), many first responders/community rescuers are less unlikely to have a PPE kit. They are at constant increased risk of getting impacted with COVID-19 during CPR, which might make individual responders hesitant to take charge of cardiac emergencies.

However, lay rescuers of family members are mostly exposed to COVID-19. Below are the primary interim changes to CPR during a pandemic like COVID-19.

Put on the PPE kit before performing CPR.

For Adults:

  • Perform at least hands-only CPR after identifying the cardiac arrest event 
  • face mask or a cloth must cover rescuer’s mouth and nose and/or victim may reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission to a non-household bystander

For Children

  • Start chest compressions and give mouth-to-mouth rescue breaths
  • face mask or cloth must protect or cover the mouth and nose of the lay responder or rescuer and/or victim may reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission to a bystander.

2015 Chest Compression Update

According to the 2015 updates, you should give at least 100 to 120 chest compressions /minute (previously the same rate was 100 compressions / minute). Recent scientific research indicates that compressions are the most important for higher survival rate. This new update sets an upper limit for the rate of necessary chest compressions, as excessive compressions might wrongly affect a sudden cardiac arrest patient’s recovery.

2014 Hands-Only CPR

The Hands-Only steps of CPR is generally used on teens or adults who suddenly collapse when you encounter them. This is CPR method which does not include the rescue breaths.

You would need to:

  1. Call 9-1-1 and stay on the phone with the paramedics
  2. Push hard and fast to start chest compressions. Hands-only method is effective even when individuals have been trained in CPR before but may not remember all the steps of conventional CPR.

*The Good Samaritan Law is intended to reduce bystanders’ hesitation to assist in an emergency.

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